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the difference between a hub and a switch?

A Hub is the simplest of those switch, router, and bridges in Networking. In general, a hub is the central part of a wheel where the spokes come together. Hubs cannot filter data so data packets are sent to all connected devices/computers and do not have intelligence to find out best path for data packets. This leads to inefficiencies and wastage.

Hub vs.switch

As a network product, a hub may include a group of modem cards for dial-in users, a gateway card for connections to a local area network (for example, an Ethernet or a token ring), and a connection to a line. Hubs are used on small networks where data transmission is not very high.

What is the Network Layer of Hub?

This table shows that Hub is in the First (Physical) Network Layer.

DeviceHubBridgeSwitchRouterWireless Access PointRepeater
Network Layer1 (Physical)2 (Data)2 (Data) or 3 (Network)3 (Network)1 (Physical) or 2 (Data)1 (Physical) ,2 (Data) or 3 (Network)

What is the difference between a hub and a switch?

The hub is similar with the switch, but they still have differences:

LayerPhysical layer. Hubs are classified as Layer 1 devices per the OSI model.Data Link Layer. Network switches operate at Layer 2 of the OSI model.
FunctionTo connect a network of personal computers together, they can be joined through a central hub.Allow to connect multiple device and port can be manage, VLAN can create security also can apply
Data Transmission formElectrical signal or bitsFrame (L2 Switch) Frame & Packet (L3 switch)
Transmission TypeHubs always perform frame flooding; may be unicast, multicast or broadcastFirst broadcast; then unicast & multicast as needed.
Ports4/12 portsSwitch is multi-port Bridge. 24/48 ports
Device TypePassive Device (Without Software)Active Device (With Software) & Networking device
TableA network hub cannot learn or store MAC address.Switches use content accessible memory CAM table which is typically accessed by ASIC (Application Specific integrated chips).
Transmission ModeHalf duplexHalf/Full duplex
Broadcast DomainHub has one Broadcast Domain.Switch has one broadcast domain [unless VLAN implemented]
DefinitionAn electronic device that connects many network devices together so that devices can exchange dataA network switch is a computer networking device that is used to connect many devices together on a computer network. A switch is considered more advanced than a hub because a switch will on send MSG to device that needs or request it
Speed10Mbps10/100 Mbps – 1 Gbps
Address used for data transmissionUses MAC addressUses MAC address
Device CategoryNot Intelligent DeviceIntelligent Device
CollisionsCollisions occur commonly in setups using hubs.No collisions occur in a full-duplex switch.
Spanning-TreeNo Spanning-TreeMany Spanning-tree Possible
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